Back in days of the medieval church, a set of related scales evolved: Ionian, Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, and Locrian. Sometimes they are refered to as modes, because the are all related in a mathematical fashion. From these came what we know as the Major and Minor scale.
Ionian (2212221) - It is the most common scale in American and European music and is known as the Major or Diatonic scale.
A subset of these notes is what some call Scottish Pentatonic scale (23223). An example of its use is Amazing Grace.
Dorian (2122212) - The fingering looks very much like Ionian, because I'm avoiding half-holing and a lot of cross-fingering by shifting the pitch up. It's basically Ionian without the lowest note.
Phrygian (1222122) - A particular favorite of mine.
A subset of these notes form the Major Pentatonic scale (22323), which some think sounds the the orient. It should look familiar, its our Basic scale, with except we never use all holes closed.
Aeolian (2122122) - Today is known as the Natural Minor Scale.
A subset of Natural Minor can be played using all finger holes, if you drop the half-holed note. It's our Basic scale, with one extra note, a sad note.